Rule -1: As if /as though/Even though (যেন)
👉Simple Present + as though/ as if ⸻ simple past.
👉Present Perfect + as though/ as if ⸻ simple past.
👉Past Indefinite + as though/ as if ⸻ past perfect.
👉Simple Present/ Present Perfect/ Past Indefinite ⸻ sub + (be) were + other words.
1. Rana walks into the field as if he were mad.
2. She orders me as though he is our boss.
3. She spoke as though she had known everything.
4. Johnny talks as if / as though he knew everything. (জনি কথা বলে যেন সে সব কিছু জানে)
5. Elizabeth behaves as if / as though she were mad. (সে এমন আচরণ করে যেন সে পাগল)
6. Question: He seemed as if I ..............
Answer: He seemed as if I had not spoken. (তাকে দেখে মনে হলো যেন আমি কিছু বলি নাই।)
7. Question: He spoke as though
Answer: He spoke as though he were crazy. (সে উন্মাদের মতো কথা বলল।)
[N.B: (a) as if / as though + verb- past form / past participle.
(b) as if / as though + be - verb were.]
Rule 2: Too ----------- to
👉Subject (person) + verb+ too + adjective/ adverb ⸻ to + Present form (V1) + object/extension
👉Subject (thing) + verb + too + adjective/ adverb + for + object ⸻ to + Present form (V1) + object/extension
👉Subject (thing) + verb + too + adjective/ adverb ⸻ to be + Past participle (V3) + object/ extension
1. The woman is too old to work properly.
2. This poem is too difficult for her to understand.
3. The coffee is too hot to be drunk.
Rule 3: Till / Until [পর্যন্ত বা যতক্ষণ পর্যন্ত না]
(i) Wait here till I do not come back.
Or, Wait here till I come back. (আমি ফিরে আসা পর্যন্ত এখানে অপেক্ষা করো।)
(ii) We shall stay in this room until the rain stops. (যতক্ষণ পর্যন্ত না বৃষ্টি থামে আমরা এ ঘরে অপেক্ষা করব।)
(NOT: We shall stay in this room until the rain does not stop)
[N.B: Till / Until- অর্থ কোনো কাজ বা ঘটনা শেষ না হওয়া পর্যন্ত। Till এর পরের বাক্যাংশ negative (না-বোধক) বা affirmative যে কোনোটি হতে পারে। তবে until এর পরে শুধু affirmative (হ্যা-বোধক) বাক্যাংশ বসে অর্থাৎ until- এর পরে সাধারণত not, never বসে না।]
(i) Question: You will be writing it till..
Answer: You will be writing it till the bell rings.
Or, You will be writing it till I ask you to stop.
(ii) Question: We waited there till...
Answer : We waited there till the rain stopped. Or, We waited there till the rain did not stop.
Or, We waited there till they came back.
(iii) Question: --- till she comes round.
Answer: I shall nurse my mother till she comes round.
(iv) Question: Work hard until ----
Ans : Work hard until success comes.
(v) Question:---- until we became tired.
Answer: We walked until we became tired.
Rule 4: Because / As/ Since [যেহেতু / যেহেতু ---- সেহেতু]
(i) He could not walk because / as / since he was ill.
Or, As / Since he was ill, he could not walk.
(ii) As / Since I felt tired, I went to bed.
N.B: Because / As / Since + কারণ বিশিষ্ট বাক্যাংশ এবং Because / As / Since এর আগে বা পরে এ কারণের ফলবিশিষ্ট বাক্যাংশ বা অন্য বাক্যাংশটি বসে।
(i) Question: He could not pass the exam because /as/since ---
Answer: He could not pass the exam because / as /since he did not study well / he had not studied well.
(ii) Question: Since / As he was late, ----
Answer: Since / As he was late , he could not catch the train.
Rule 5: Unless (যদি না, না হলে, না করলে)
(i) Unless you work hard, you cannot expect to shine in life.
Or, You cannot expect to shine in life unless you work hard.
(ii) Unless you start right now, you will miss the bus.
Or, You will miss the bus unless you start right now.
[N.B: Unless + হ্যা - বোধক বাক্যাংশ / না - বোধক / হ্যা - বোধক বাক্যাংশ (অর্থ অনুসারে)]
Question: Unless you study well, ...............
Answer: Unless you study well, you will fail in your exam / you will not pass your exam.
Question: You will miss the class unless ---
Answer: You will miss the class unless you hurry up / you walk fast / you start now.
Rule 6: As [যখন ----- তখন, সময়ের সাথে সাথে, যেমন ---- তেমন]
(i) As he grew older , he became weak.
Or, He became weak as he grew older.
(ii) As I saw the snake ----
Answer: As I saw the snake, it ran away.
Rule 7: So that / In order that / that [যেন, যার ফলে / যাতে করে]
(i) We eat food so that / in order that / that we may live.
(ii) He worked hard so that /that /in order that he could succeed in his attempt. (তার প্রচেষ্টায় সফল হতে পারে।)
[NB: so that / in order that / that + উদ্দেশ্য যুক্ত বাক্যাংশ।]
Question: The teacher spoke loudly so that ..... Answer: The teacher spoke loudly so that the students could hear him well / we could hear him.
Question: We eat vegetables that ---
Answer: We eat vegetables that we can keep fit / we can keep in good health / we can get vitamins.
Rules of Completing Sentences with Exercises
(i) He is so weak that he cannot carry this load.
(ii) The car was moving so fast that we became nervous.
[N.B: So + Adjective / adverb + that + বাক্যাংশ]
Question : Olivia is .......... that she can work out this difficult sum.
Answer: Olivia is so intelligent that she can work out this difficult sum.
Question: The boy was so weak----
Answer: The boy was so weak that he could not move.
Rule 9: So much ....... that / So many ....... that [এত বেশি পরিমাণ ... যে / এত বেশি সংখ্যক ...... যে]
(i) Karim has eaten so much food that he cannot walk now.
(ii) There are so many stars in the sky that I cannot count them.
[N. B: So much / So many --- that + ফলাফল যুক্ত বাক্যাংশ]
Rule 10: As soon as [সেই মাত্র / মাত্রই]
(i) As soon as he reached school, the bell rang. Or, The bell rang as soon as he reached college. (ii) As soon as we saw the snake, it fled away.
Or, The snake fled away as soon as we saw it.
N.B: একটি কাজ হতে না হতেই আর একটি কাজ শুরু হলে অথবা একটি কাজ শুরু হওয়া মাত্রই আর একটি কাজ সম্পন্ন হলে আমরা as soon as ব্যবহার করি।
(iii) Question: As soon as I came back home , Answer: As soon as I came back home, it began raining / my father called me / my younger brother ran to me.
Rule 11: As much as / As much .............. as / As many . … ........ as [যতটুকু ....... ততটুকু / যতটুকু সম্ভব / যতগুলো ---ততগুলো]
(i) I helped the poor boy as much as I could.
(ii) She drank as much water as she could.
(iii) He ate as many oranges as he got.
Rule 12: As ...... as [মতো, ন্যায়, যেমন ...তেমন]
(i) Her teeth are as bright as pearls.
(ii) I am as tall as he.
[N.B: As ...... as তুলনা বোঝাতে হ্যা - বোধক বাক্যে বসে।]
1. Eva is as --- Angela
Answer: Eva is as clever / intelligent / studious as Angela.
2. They are as honest ---
Answer: They are as honest as we (are).
Rule 13: As long as [ততক্ষণ পর্যন্ত / যতক্ষণ পর্যন্ত]
(i) I shall be beside you as long as you are honest.
(ii) We waited there as long as it rained.
1. We worked as long ..............
Answer: We worked as long as we could
2. God will help us as long as ...............
Answer: God will help us as long as we are honest.
Rule 14: Would that / Wish / Were / Had [যদি এমন হত]
1. Would that I wish I ...............
Answer: Would that / I wish I were a child again / 2. I could be a child again ! [আমি আবার শিশু হতে পারতাম।]
3. Were I ..............!
Answer: Were I a child again. (আমি যদি আবার শিশু হতে পারতাম।)
4. Had I much money ---
Answer: Had I much money I would have set up a school.
[N. B: Would that / Wish / Were / Had -যুক্ত বাক্যগুলো মনের অবাস্তব / অসম্ভব ইচ্ছা প্রকাশ করে। এরূপ স্থানে ‘be’ - verb- এর ক্ষেত্রে ‘were’ বসে। অন্যান্য verb- এর ক্ষেত্রে could / would + মূল verb- এর মূলরূপ বসে could have / would have + verb- এর past participle ব্যবহার করেও বাকি অংশ সম্পূর্ণ করা যায়।]
Conditional Sentence Rules
1. Zero conditional: চিরন্তন সত্য, বৈজ্ঞানিক সত্য, অভ্যাসগত সত্য if + Present Indefinite, ⸻Present Indefinite
a) If water freezes, it turns into ice.
b) If sun rises, darkness disappears.
c) Darkness disappears if sun rises.
2. First conditional: if + present indefinite,⸻ subject + will/can/may/must/will be able to + V1.
Or, Sub + will/can/may/must/will be able to + V1⸻ + if + Present Indefinite
a) If I find his address, I will write him .
b) we will make the negotiation if he wants.
c) If you work hard, you will be able to pass.
3. Second conditional: if + Past Indefinite, ⸻ subject + would/could/might + V1.
Or, Sub + would/could/might + V1 ⸻ if + Past Indefinite.
a) If I found his address, I would write him.
b) If you came, I would go.
c) If I had money, I would help the poor.
4. Third conditional: If + Past Perfect, ⸻Subject + could/ would/ might + have + V3.
Or, Subject + could/ would/ might + have + V3 ⸻ if + Past Perfect
a) If he had come, I would have helped him.
b) If the man had found my address, he would have written me.
c) You could have passed if you had worked hard.
👉কখনো কখনো third conditional এ if ব্যবহৃত হয় না। সেক্ষেত্রে had sentence এর পূর্বে বসে।
a) Had I read the book, I would have known many unknown things.
b) Had we taken the decision, you could have fallen in distress.
c) Had he come, I would have met him.
Note: 2nd conditional sentence be verb হিসেবে সবসময় were ব্যবহৃত হয়।
A. If I was a king, I would help you. (incorrect)
Answer: If I were a king, I would help you. (correct)
B. If he was in the meeting, we would able to make the negotiation. (incorrect)
Answer: If he were in the meeting, we would be able to make the negotiation. (correct)
Rule 15: When [যখন ........ তখন, পরে]
(i) When the teacher entered the classroom, the students kept silence.
Or, The students stood up when the teacher entered the classroom.
(ii) When you have finished, call me.
Or, Call me when you have finished.
(iii) When you have succeeded in your life, your parents will be happy.
Or, Your parents will be happy when you have succeeded in your life.
[N.B: When + subordinate clause (অধীন / নির্ভরশীল বাক্যাংশ) +, (কমা) + principal clause (প্রধান / স্বাধীন বাক্যাংশ)]
Or, Principal clause (প্রধান স্বাধীন বাক্যাংশ) + when + subordinate clause (অধীন / নির্ভরশীল বাক্যাংশ)
👉When + past + past
👉Past + when + past
👉When + present + present
👉Present + when + present
👉When + present + future
Or, Present + when + future
(i) Question: When we went to meet him...
Answer: When we went to meet him , we found him absent.
(ii) Question: When his father returned home...
Answer: When his father returned home, he began to read his books.
(iii) Question: Johnny.... when he was got a visa.
Answer: Johnny will go to Sweden / India when he has got a visa.
Rule 16: Though/ Although (যদিও)
👉Though/Although + subject + Verb + object/extension ⸻ Opposite clause.
👉Opposite clause + though/ although ⸻ subject + Verb + object/extension.
1. Though our farmers work hard, they did not get the proper value of their crops.
2. Though she is tall, she cannot touch the roof.
3. Though some laws have been made, they cannot be implemented properly.
4. The people of Bangladesh are friendly though they are not rich.
Rule 17: That/So that/ in order that (যাতে করে; যাতে; যাহাতে)
👉Given Clause + that/so that/ in order that ⸻ subject + may /might/ can/ could + V1 + object/ext.
Here “may/ might” expresses the possibility of action and “can/could” expresses the certainty of action.
Rule 18: Lest (পাছে, পাছে ঘটে তাই) (lest+ affirmative clause)
👉Imperative Sentence + lest + subject + should/ might + V1 + object/extension
👉Assertive Sentence + lest + subject + should/ might + V1 + object/extension
1. Monica keeps silent lest she might fall in danger.
2. Walk fast lest you might miss the bus
3. Marisa Rose Studied hard lest she might fail in the exam.
4. Jin ran hurriedly lest he should be caught by the police.
5. The workers advanced towards lest they should fall behind.