Adverb: Definition, Classification, Position and Formation

What is Adverb?

The adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or other words.

Adverb that modifies the the part of speech is discussed below.

i. Adverb, modify verb: She sings sweetly.

ii. Adverb, Modify adjective: She is very honest.

iii. Adverb, Modify adverb: She sings very sweetly.

iv. Adverb, modify preposition: She is just over forty.

v. Adverb, modify Conjunction: The bell rang just after I had reached the college.

vi. Adverb, Modify Participle: This is a very interesting story.

vii. Adverb, Modify Sentence: Certainly she will come. (It is certain that she will come.)

Classification of Adverbs

👉Adverbs can be divided into three categories according to function. For example:

1. Simple Adverb
2. Interrogative Adverb
3. Relative or Conjunctive Adverb. 
Adverb: Definition, Classification, Formation, Position and Formation
1. Simple adverb: An adverb that modifies a word or sentence is called a simple adverb. Simple Adverb is also called Independent Adverb.

1. The girl sings sweetly.
2. Unfortunately he failed.

Explanation: The adverb “sweetly” in the first sentence modifies only the verb “sing” and the second sentence “unfortunately” modifies “he failed” Sentence.

👉According to the meaning, Simple Adverb can be divided into the following parts:

A. Time
B. Place
C. Manner
D. Degree
E. Number
F. Order
G. Cause and effect
H. Assertion

A. Adverb of Time: The adverb which indicates the time of completion of a verb, is called adverb of time.  The following words are commonly used as Adverb of Time: Today, tomorrow, yesterday, daily, always, now, then, ago, often, never, sometimes, after, already.  before, when, while, early soon, immediately, formerly, presently, instantly, since etc.

Note: If the Adverb of Time asks a question “when” on the verb, the answer of a time is found. That time is Adverb of Time.

1. He will come tomorrow.

B. Adverb of Place: Here, there, everywhere, anywhere, nowhere, up, down, below, outside, inside, far, near, neither, thither, in, out, above etc.

C. Adverb of Manner: Badly, wisely, quickly, highly, silently, certainly, slowly, justly, probably, gently, hardly, well, so, thus, how etc.
i. He entered the room silently.

D. Adverb of Degree: Very, much, half, so, extremely, too, quite, how, twice, almost, fully, wholly etc.
Johnny is very wise.

E. Adverb of Number: Once, twice, secondly, thirdly, often, always, never, sometimes, again, seldom etc.

i. She helped me twice.

F. Adverb of Order: First, second, third, last, firstly, secondly, thirdly etc.

i. She came to the meeting last.

G. Adverb of Cause and Effect: Why, therefore, wherefore, hence, accordingly, consequently, as, yet, become, so etc.

i. She is sick and so she will not go to college.

H. Adverb of Assertion: Yes, no, not, surely, certainly, truly, probably, possibly, perhaps, indeed, really etc.
i. Probably it may rain today.
ii. Certainly she will come

2. Interrogative adverb: The adverb that is used to ask a question is called an interrogative adverb. For example, Why, when, where, how, many, how much etc. are used for Interrogative Adverb.

A. Time: When will you go there?
B. Place: Where does he live?
C. Number: How often does the bell ring?
D. Condition: How do you feel today?
E. Cause: Why has he done the work?
F. Quantity: How much rice do you need?

3. Conjunctive adverb: An adverb that modifies a word and joins two clauses is called a conjunctive adverb.

i. I know when he will come.
ii. Will you tell me where he lives?
iii. I know the time when he will come?

Formation of Adverbs

1. Adverb is usually formed by adding - ly to Adjective.

i. loud + ly = loudly; bad + ly = badly
ii. wise + ly = wisely;  beautiful + ly = beautifully; iii. nice + ly = nicely; slow + ly = slowly.

2. If there is y at the end of the adjective and if there is a consonant before y, it will be in place of y.  And at the end ly is to be added.

Happy - happily, gay - gaily, heavy - heavily, ready - readily, hardy - hardily, noisy - noisily, jolly - jollily.

3. If there is - LE at the end of the adjective, we change E rises to Y.

4. Some words are ending LY (adjective) but never use adverb. We can use other words for formation of Adverb. For example, likely (adj) - probably (adv); friendly (adj) - in a friendly way (adv).

5. Some words normally used adverb. For example, fast, hard, high, loud, late, low, little, near, best, quick, early, only, enough, better, much, back, next.

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