The Middle English period

English Literature refers to written in the English language. This literature was originated from the 8th to the 11th century by the epic poem Beowulf.

Although the poem is written in the background of Scandinavia, England's national epic gets its recognition. The next major work of English literature is poet Geoffrey Chaucer's writings; Especially the Canterbury Tales.

Middle English period literature

This period started in 1066 and ended at the close of the fifteenth century. There are two shorter ages within this period. One is The Anglo-Norman period and the other is The Age Of Geoffrey Chaucer period. The Anglo-Norman period started in 1066 and ended in 1340. The literature of that period was written mainly in Anglo-Norman, the French dialect, spoken by the new ruling class of England that's why it is called the Anglo-Norman period. Other is The age of the Geoffrey Chaucer period is started in 1340 and ended in 1400. This period called Ages of Geoffrey Chaucer because of Geoffrey Chaucer, the great poet, and dominate this period. The time from 1066 to 1500 is called “The Middle Ages.” The period started with the Norman conquest. The early period of the Middle English Ages is called the “Dark Ages” because what actually happened during that time can hardly be known. The drama began with the variety of “Mystery Play”, “Morality Play”, and “Interlude”. The writers of these ages are influenced by Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio.

Middle English period subjective

In the Middle English period, there are three main literary subjects of this period. First is love, the second is Chivalry and third is religion. The spirit of romance dominated the age. The Anglo-Norman period famous writer was Roger Bacon. Opus Majus and Te Opusrtium are two famous literature by Roger Bacon. Another Anglo-Norman period writer was Anselm his literature name is Cor Deas Homo.

Middle English period literature
William Langland and John Wycliffe were Geoffrey Chaucer's contemporaries. John Wycliffe was called the Father of English Prose for Transportation of the Bible into English for the first time in prose form. William Caxton was very famous because he established the first English Printing Press in 1476 in London. William Langland was written by Piers Plowman and Richard the Redeless. John Gower writes Confessio Amantis and Sir Thomas Malory writes Morte d' Arthur.

We will look at the period in the history of the English language called the Middle English period. Let us see what is meant by the usage of the term. In English language and literature, the period that extends from 1066 and the year of Norman conquest to 1500 is designated as the Middle English period. This is mark's square clear break from the old English period also called the Anglo Saxon period and was prominent in the plan to generate era.

From about 1500 the dialect called Chancery standard began to be widespread in England. Norman conquest is an important event in the history of England because it was the time when the French ruled over England and the French influence on every aspect of English life became notable. The conquest happens William the Duke of Normandy one in the Battle of Hastings 1066 in a dynastic war for the Throne of England.

As a result of the work will become William 1 of England and his normal countryman become feudal Lords in England. Of course, Norman French was spoken in the English quote from 2042 onwards. In fact, English and normal French were both common languages in England. 

However normal Franch enjoys the patronage of the court the nobility and the law quotes. Even Franch literature was more popular among the upper classes. And French was the upper-class language or The Prestige language. Well, English was relegated to the common class. Anglo Saxon and normal French mingled to form what is now called Middle English. 

This is the mix Anglo-Franch tongue from which modern English has a descendant. French influence on English was present for centuries after the normal duration and that till about 12 Note 4. The norman Franch was the predominant upper-class language and the English language tried to develop with the help of dialects such as West Saxon and East Midland. However when William Caxton towards the end of the Middle English period introduces the printing press in England. He printed his earlier books in the East Midlands dialect.

The changes in the language affected in this period wherein terms of grammar spelling pronunciation and vocabulary. The middle  English period birth and Furnishing of various in English literature were Latin the official language the most popular genre of literature in Latin was the chronicle. Geoffrey of man mods Historia Nigam Britannia contained accounts of God product Liya and symbol. And provided material for various later writers including William Shakespeare. Historia Oregon Brittany was translated into English by lemon as Black. Other prominent chronicle writers were Lawrence of them and William. Which is considered as the father of historical criticism?

The first translation of Euclid also belong to this period and was made in this period by Adalat. Religious poetry was famous just as it was in the old English Period. There was a special form call McCormick POEMSs a mixture of Latin and English words. Religious construction was a popularised course and Monday. There was a lot of writing about sense to prominently about Saint Catherine and Saint Julien. Another important development in this period was the translation of the Latin Bible to English by John Wickliffe. which enables a number of people today in the Bible.

The first debate in English was written in this period owl and The Nightingale and crew. Robert Mannings handling of sense was also written during this period the first lyrics were also written in the 12th-century. After Geoffrey Chaucer, his translated glorious Roman nose into English writing of allegorical. He became a popular particular form of literature called the beast theory florist in this period these are stories that are in the form of allegories and animals' physical characteristics are given moral exclamation. The earliest works of this kind are Bernard full was his Cosmographia. The most famous work of this period is William Langland, Piers and the Pablo.

Fable story was another genre that was popular in the middle ages. English period also witnessed a shift from heroic to romantic poetry. There are two reasons for this one was the relative period of stability in England which enables the writing of romances compared to the earlier period of More and stripe which resulted in heroic poetry. The reason for the shift was the influence of French literature. The sources for this romance French and English literature. The Roman romances dealt with stories about Troy.

Romance is originated from Britain, however, were usually about the adventures of King Arthur and his nights. Ballots narrative Rhythmic poetry was popular during this period. Although ballots were or transmitted even in the old English period. The first written records were found only in the Middle English period. The Robin Hood ballots were written in the 14 century. we cannot see that an incredible amount of literature was produced during this period.

The main aim of these changes was an attempt at simplifying the language does there was an attempted level the walls of the final unaccented inflectional syllabus. Agree to a degree of uniformity was that achieved with its simplified case and the system. The grammar of Middle English is much closer to that of modern English than that of old English. In middle English, only two distinct now and ending patterns from the complex system of inflexion in Old English are retained. The early modern English words angle and name demo straight to store patterns from nouns of the angle type have any in the nominative accusative Cinderella. Like the week declension but otherwise, have strong endings. The strong em and plural form has not ended but middle English but survived into modern English.

Another important feature of middle English grammar is the action to reduce the ending of words or more commonly called the levelling of inflexion. This process was Rapid in some areas like the north. where the chills a headache and even before the end of old English and in the east midlands. In a few stereotyped phrases inflectional forms Lingard into the modern period. But overall English lost its inflections in the Middle English period. 

By Shakespeare's time, the process of the levelling of infections was complete. A consequence of the levelling of inflexion that had a far-reaching effect on English Grammar. Difficult to master the complicated grammar related to gender also the same object which is masculine in English is feminine in French or vice a Versa.

The only way out of this confusion was to adopt a neuter gender which was done. The laws of reflection in the adjectives was also another reason for the shift to neuter gender. In order to simplify the English language, the changes in gender where necessary or not restricted to inflectional changes pronounce to get affected. For instance the personal pronoun she was introduced in the middle of the 12th century. The middle English period does Mark important in the grammar of the English language. 

The most important development in pronunciation took place in the region of Midland. Another change that was affected was in the case of long vowels was Ford change to food. The French influence on the English vocabulary was most widespread during the Middle English period. During this period of 10000 French words are adapted to the English language and still in use. Words such as casual and Baron got the right from the Cuban and monitoring system from the time of William the Conqueror. The judicial system of the time gives rise to words such as presents and quotes.

The names of most crimes including that of the sheet were first used in English in the Middle English period. The influence of the medieval church let to words like parcel Charity and beauty. which came from medieval scholarship and learning. Charity original amount love but it gradually changed the meaning to main help given to the poor. The words Jeweller and carpenter came into English from French. As the latter practised these traits more often than the Englishman, Similarly the words came from the developments in other fields. while physic came from Science influence can come astrology as in the sense of the influence of the planets and stars.

The existence of two languages simultaneously gives rise to synonyms which gradually became differentiated in the meaning of usage. A prominent example is a pair of words with Anne Marie the former world is the native word on the original amount to give a cat. But not necessarily in terms of marriage. The laughter is the French term and mains to become a husband. I

In modern English, both multiply the same although marriage has a more stilted and proper a suggestion than a wedding. For instance child and Infant kindly and Royal at etc. This period different names were used for animals and their meet. There was because French cooks used French names for the cooked meat. For example, cow beef sheep mutton for beginning to the first used in this period. For names such as cook and Side bottom indicating occupation of personal features were initially only nicknames.

This nicknames when necessary to distinguish people from another man from giving a distant identity to people is but a friend of parentage. For example, a person would be called Peterson suggesting that he was born the son of Peter. with the passing of time, these nicknames were used as surnames to indicate heredity and they were used as part of the name.

The influence of normal French can be engaged from the language of a chronicle written by Monk of the monastery Peterboro of October in about 11:55 on the reign of King Stefan. Development of the English language there were disadvantages that have won the loss of made towards the different middle English dialogues in the need of a standard English are some of the obvious disadvantages due to the influence of the French on English. We have already noted that the Norman conquest was important in French in changes in vocabulary.
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